Passport Photo ID Maker Studio - ID Photo Editor APK

Version 1.2.0 - io.yarsa.passportphotomaker
Last updated: 2020-05-30

Passport Size Photo Maker makes photo for UK passport, ID or Visa for free.

APP Information

Download Version 1.2.0 (9)
Apk Size8.00 MB
App DeveloperYarsa Labs
Malware CheckTRUSTED
Install on Android4.1.x and up
App Packageio.yarsa.passportphotomaker.apk

Download Passport Photo ID Maker Studio - ID Photo Editor 1.2.0 APK

App Description

Passport Photo ID Maker Studio - ID Photo Editor is yarsa,passportphotomaker,productivity,photo,passport, content rating is Everyone (PEGI-3). This app is rated 5 by 1 users who are using this app. To know more about the company/developer, visit Yarsa Labs website who developed it. io.yarsa.passportphotomaker.apk apps can be downloaded and installed on Android 4.1.x and higher Android devices. The Latest Version of 1.2.0 Available for download. Download the app using your favorite browser and click Install to install the application. Please note that we provide both basic and pure APK files and faster download speeds than APK Mirror. This app APK has been downloaded 203+ times on store. You can also download io.yarsa.passportphotomaker APK and run it with the popular Android Emulators.

Passport Size Photo Maker (ID Photo Maker Studio) is the best passport size editor app among free passport photo maker, editor and photo print apps. This app lets you save money by combining standard passport, ID or VISA photos into single sheet of 3x4, 4x4, 4x6, 5x7 or A4 paper. Then you can order prints from print service providers. Or, you can take your phone to local photo print service providers and get it printed.
Passport size photo maker is capable of creating official photo sizes for ID, Passport, VISA and License of all countries of the world including USA, Spain, Germany, France, India, Italy, Korea and Brazil. All the basic features that are needed to create a compliant passport photo are available for free.
Passport size photo editor contains all standard printing paper sizes for free.  Our customers  have saved hundreds of dollars by ordering the prints of 3x4, 4x4, 4x6 / 5x6 photos using photo print services, after combining passport photos using this app. 
Passport size photo maker includes premium features like Background removal and Ink and money saver for purchase within the app. Purchases are refundable if they fail to work on your device. Passport size photo editor saves you time and money.
Following official photo sizes are supported by Passport size photo maker
Afghanistan Passport Photo
Australian Passport Photo
Photo for Australian VISA
Bangladesh Passport Photo
Canada  Passport Photo
ID Photo for Canada
Canadian VISA Photo
China Passport Photo
Czech Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Passport photo for Denmark
Denmark VISA Photo
Dominican Republic
France ID Photo
France Passport Photo
VISA Photo for France
German Passport Photo
Photo for German VISA
Hong Kong Passport Photo
Photo for Hong Kong ID
Indian Passport Photo
India VISA Photo
Photo for Indian OCI/PAN Card
Photo for Italy
Italian Passport Photo
Italian VISA Photo
Ivory Coast
Japanese Passport Photo
Photo for Japan VISA
Photo for Republic of Korea
Korean Passport Photo
Korea VISA Photo
Malaysian Passport Photo
Photo for Malaysian VISA / ID
Nepal MRP Size Photo
Photo for Nepal Passport
Netherlands Passport Photo
Photo for Netherlands
New Zealand Passport Photo
Pakistan Passport Photo
Photo for Pakistan ID
Philippines Passport Photo
Photo for Philippines ID and VISA
Portugal Passport Photo
Photo for Portugal ID and VISA
Republic of the Congo
Russian Passport Photo
Photo for Russia ID and VISA
Saudi Arabia Passport Photo
Photo for Saudi Arabia ID
Singapore ID Photos
Photo for Singapore Passport
South Africa
Spain Passport Photo
Photo for Spain ID and VISA
Sri Lanka
Sweden Passport Photo
Switzerland Passport Photo
Trinidad and Tobago
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom Passport Photo
Photo for UK VISA
Photo for EU Visa and Passport
..and more.
1. This software is provided in AS IS basis. User of this app will be solely responsible for any consequences.
2. Names of other companies or brands, and their logos are registered trademarks of the respective companies or their partners. The owners hold the copyright to those names and logos. The use of those names and trademarks is done for informative purpose. We are not endorsed by those companies, and we claim no right to any such text and assets.
Happy photo making!
© Yarsa Labs 2017 - 2018 

App ChangeLog

  • Make your photo 100% free of cost
  • Combine photo as 3x5, 4x6 or 10x15
  • Print at home or at Walgreens

App Screens

Passport Photo ID Maker Studio - ID Photo Editor App Screen 1Passport Photo ID Maker Studio - ID Photo Editor App Screen 2Passport Photo ID Maker Studio - ID Photo Editor App Screen 3Passport Photo ID Maker Studio - ID Photo Editor App Screen 4


requires following permissions on your android device.

view network connections
Allows the app to view information about network connections such as which networks exist and are connected.

take pictures and videos
Allows the app to take pictures and videos with the camera. This permission allows the app to use the camera at any time without your confirmation.

full network access
Allows the app to create network sockets and use custom network protocols. The browser and other applications provide means to send data to the internet, so this permission is not required to send data to the internet.

manage document storage
Allows the app to manage document storage.

read the contents of your SD card
Allows the app to read the contents of your SD card.

prevent phone from sleeping
Allows the app to prevent the phone from going to sleep.

modify or delete the contents of your SD card
Allows the app to write to the SD card.

In-App billing
In-app Billing on Google Play provides a straightforward, simple interface for sending In-app Billing requests and managing In-app Billing transactions using Google Play.

receive data from Internet
Allows apps to accept cloud to device messages sent by the app's service. Using this service will incur data usage. Malicious apps could cause excess data usage.

Older Versions

More Android Apps to Consider

Google Play Reviews

  1. Glynne Mitchell-avatar

    Glynne Mitchell


    I only use the free version of this app and I'm very happy with it. The UI when taking the photo is great and makes sure you are taking it at the correct distance, angle, light intensity etc and when you have taken the picture the edit feature is very good aswell, it lets you change a number parameters so you get a photo that will be accepted by the Passport Office, DVLA etc... I would recommend to anyone who needs an I.D photo.

  2. Logemann Wissanee-avatar

    Logemann Wissanee


    This is very helpful app!! I didn't used them for passport, but I used it for the student card. Due to the COVID, I didn't go out for taking picture and this apps make it super easy for take pictures anywhere and change the background. I love this app!!

  3. Jim-avatar

    DO NOT DOWNLOAD THIS APP! I downloaded the paid version in order to get a passport photo. I attempted inside/outside, background remover all to no avail. Every photo was rejected by the passport office. When I contacted the developer for a refund there was no answer to my messages and NO REFUND, THEFT!!

  4. Derek Casey-avatar

    Be careful, it was OK to start with so like a fool I paid for full version then it asked for more money for automatic background credits i was never informed of this when app purchased, disappointing and misleading. Google needs to remove this fraudulent person!

  5. Row Rahman-avatar

    I decided to pay for the premium version only to find out after I've paid that it's of no use to me as the photo I'm taking is of a child younger than 13 years old. Bit disappointed. This should've been said to me before I paid for it! Apart from that it seems good

  6. Michael Paolini-avatar

    Michael Paolini


    Perfection this professional grade. This is worth it's upgraded in one usage. I take better grade passport photo then any place I paid 25 dollars can send or receive photos from any social media.

  7. William Stewart-avatar

    William Stewart


    Great app for making passport photos. I bought the premium version and it works as advertised.

  8. Ian Kilkenny-avatar

    Doesn't work numerous attempts made for UK passport. Rejected on every occasion. Requested money back have had no response from developer.

  9. Chelsea Herrick-avatar

    Chelsea Herrick


    Taking out the background to make it white is useless. It looks so bad your pic will be immediately rejected if you send it in like that.

  10. AA bian-avatar

    Great app for, very easy to use, very helpful, tried several similar apps before, but this one is the easiest to use, use magic option to change background. Thanks and cheers from indonesia

  11. Janice Kang-avatar

    User friendly app. Easily can adjust the photo to meet the file size needed.

  12. skazka69-avatar

    Awesome ID editor. Selphy's own software just couldn't edit anywhere near as well as this.

  13. ian brown-avatar

    Paid for the full app and it doesn't work, it wont let me automatically remove background because of network error? Worked one day now it doesn't.

  14. Thata Santos-avatar

    Very easy to use.! Needed a photo during lockdown and it came really helpful.

  15. Mr. J-avatar

    Purchased it to remove background. It doesnt to it automatically as promised. Shows nettwork error all the time.

  16. Cam Reid-avatar

    Easy to use after some practice , no need to go too photo booth during lockdown.

  17. kanwal ali-avatar

    It's really a good app, easy to use. Satisfied to install.

  18. bianchiboy1-avatar

    Got this app to do the wifes passport..went on to buy the premium version..well worth the money as it does a brill job of removing the background for you...overall a brill app *****

  19. Asim Jameela-avatar

    Very good, could have more editing options but good enough for regular work

  20. Abdul Khadrie Drammeh-avatar

    Abdul Khadrie Drammeh


    BUYERS BE AWARE, SCAMMED DEVELOPERS. The developer of this app claims in the app description that as a premium member, you can use the app as much as you want. That is FLASE CLAIMS. They do have a limit as to how many passport pictures you can edit. I edited pictures of myself and my family, after some trials and errors, the DEVELOPER is asking for more MONEY FOR THE SAME APP. I WILL NOT RECOMMEND THIS APP TO ANY ONE WHO IS PLANNING TO PRINT PASSPORT PICTURES FOR SELF AND FAMILY.

  21. Kyle lee-avatar

    Purchase the premium version, but the photo still rejected by the authority. Ask them to refund but no response. Poor App and service.

  22. Blzd_Steve-avatar

    Just fantastic in what it does. Simple but very efficient

  23. V Sidhu-avatar

    Very handy tool for photo editing I highly recommend to download this app

  24. r.m Gowda-avatar

    So easy to make passport size photo thank u for that

  25. Débora Scholl-avatar

    Great! I love it, easy and fast!!

  26. Mukesh Patel-avatar

    Brilliant app. Quick and easy to use.

  27. daunlotan odi-avatar

    the guide to take picture is really a great help

  28. Bev Ellis-avatar

    Have to pay to remove the background. Waste of time

  29. Mike Calo-avatar

    Easy to use, well worth the cost of premium.

  30. Šαм-avatar

    Does not change background to flat white by default.

  31. Cheryl Sandala-avatar

    Needed a passport type photo for a job application. This worked great.

  32. Pastor isaiah Mko-avatar

    Pastor isaiah Mko


    Easy to use and good effects too.

  33. Brijesh Kumar Singh-avatar

    Brijesh Kumar Singh


    Very helpful for passport photos

  34. rakesh adhikari-avatar

    rakesh adhikari


    Usefull and very easy to handle

  35. Mukesh Kaluwar-avatar

    Awesome simple and user friendly

  36. E Khine-avatar

    Very easy to use. Great results.

  37. Richard Tetteh Amenyedzi-avatar

    Richard Tetteh Amenyedzi


    Very good and user friendly.

  38. A.Kaiyum memon-avatar

    Amazing it works perfect. Every time

  39. Timothy Alfonso-avatar

    Timothy Alfonso


    Easy to use and very handy.

  40. Brian Tan-avatar

    Easy to use! Worth the premium!

  41. Andy Flint-avatar

    Very straightforward to use

  42. Graham Toon-avatar

    Very good app. Easy to use.

  43. Abdellah kh.-avatar

    Very good!!! Quick and easy!!!

  44. Quizon G. Freires-avatar

    Quizon G. Freires


    Easy and convenient!

  45. David Okai-avatar

    great app, very easy to use

  46. Favour Achimba-avatar

    This app was really helpful and easy to use

  47. Govardhan Mucharla-avatar

    Govardhan Mucharla


    Too many ads

  48. J Miller-avatar

    The app seems well made and is fairly easy to use, but the end result is obviously edited, and with the new standards for unedited photos by the government, I am not confident that this photo would be accepted. I ended up uninstalling the app after paying for the premium version and had to get my photo taken professionally.

  49. Rick Mills-avatar

    Got this for my daughter's passport application. Mega easy to use. Checked the first photo with the government online passport photo checker and it said there was a problem with the image and the background . I quickly changed the background using this app again, to a light grey and presto it was accepted . Wish I had it last year paid a fortune for professional guaranteed photos.

  50. Norjana Medal-avatar

    This app deserve a decent review! Just what Im looking for. Thumbs up for a great app! More useful than any other ID photo editor in playstore. Must-have app. Give it a try!

  51. Glen Peres-avatar

    I purchased this app to click a passport size picture of a newborn baby a year ago, and since then I've used it for many more passport/ visa pictures of others . Just click a picture with a light background with your phone, and the app does the rest, customized to the particular country's specifications. The best feature is the cloud based background removal , that is available in the paid version of the app.

  52. Sijin Kumar-avatar

    I brought the premium licence ant it says It will unlock all the features and can use it any number of times. Last day I got a message saying I have used so many photo edits and need to buy more credits to use their feature. This is really cheating and they didn't mention anything about it anywhere on their application.

  53. Peter Pan-avatar

    Worth the $4.99. At first I didn't want to pay any money and I only wanted to use the free app. With the premium version it can automatically remove the background perfectly and change the color. So your passport photo looks legit. And you can use it again whenever you need it.

  54. Jeff Wang-avatar

    I paid for this app and thought I should have access to all functions. BUT, NO! I have to pay every time I want to remove background.

  55. Paul Fowler-avatar

    When it works its fantastic, paid for the premium to change the background to pure white for the purpose of passports, used it 3 times without fail, went to do 2 more today and it wont remove the background automatically, keep getting the message "network fail" been like that for awhile now, please help.

  56. Pani Adavikolanu-avatar

    Pani Adavikolanu


    Used it for my daughter's OCI. Its just perfect and much much better than any pf the photo labs. Clarity depends on the phone of course but the paid version of this app is the icing on top. Editing the background is a blessing. Used it for Passport and visa as well. Highly recommend

  57. Jonathan Best-avatar

    Well, just edited mine and my partners photos and all got green ticks and so hopefully will be OK for our new passports. Easy to use and step by step instructions too. Seems to be a really good app and would recommend as taking normal photo is hard work and not approved. J Best, Saltash, Cornwall.

  58. Ernest Frimpong Jnr-avatar

    Ernest Frimpong Jnr


    Amazing! It's very professional!

  59. Steven Ooi-avatar

    Quite amazing. They know the specifications of most countries, so easy to use that it's almost idiot-proof. Even has the ability to adjust the file size of each picture over a large range. Actually makes passport photos quite fun.

  60. Jake R-avatar

    Only issue is that passport office accepted my photo online, so I don't get my money back!!! Sound investment, no awkward encounter with photo shops and over half the price!!! I'm so happy. Can't rate your app highly enough!!! Thanks!!! :)

  61. Tumelo Sibisi-avatar

    Super awesome app its like my pics were done at a studio

  62. Krys Houde-avatar

    This app makes everything so simple. You can take a photo right in the app, using the guide to line it up perfectly, edit it as needed, then the app will size it perfectly for you, and even create a printable 4x6 with multiple copies of your picture prearranged. What would've taken me at least an hour on my own was done in 5 minutes. Incredibly useful.

  63. Robert Clark-avatar

    Scam. It does not work without a premium subscription, you can take a photo however the next page where you are meant to be able to edit your photos is a uncloseable page about premium features that you cannot get past.

  64. Manju Goel-avatar

    Super simple. Took the picture against a white wall so didn't have to mess with changing the background color. Emailed it to myself and printed it out. Love the six 2x2" option on one 4x6" photo sheet! All done for free! Thanks.

  65. Myyb PBR-avatar

    Why did you remove 2x2 inch in prints?

  66. Robert Walsh-avatar

    This app is excellent! It removed the back ground in under 10 secs (took me 3 hours using paint! Previously). I have the premium app worth every penny when compared with a photo booth!

  67. Matt Danielson-avatar

    Not free. You have to pay to get it to work.

  68. bea espiritu-avatar

    Nice and easy to use

  69. Oladapo King-avatar

    This is my first time of using such an app. Very impressed I took passport sized photos for my UK passport and they were approved. This app works a treat. Well done to the developer 😀awesome job👍

  70. Mhd Chah-avatar

    An exceptional app for Online Passport-Renewal in Singapore. In-app features were configured to provide the user with a structured approach in finalizing their Passport-Photo, in accordance with their country's Passport-Photo Guidelines. An all-rounder app. Terima kasih!

  71. John Wallace-avatar

    Didn't work for me. Took a photo with the free app, printed on photo print paper, and had it rejected by the State Department. Total waste of time. Just pay to have it professionally done. You only need a picture every 10 years. Maybe the State Department will be electronic by the time you need another one. I was pennywise and pound foolish. You can avoid that by reading this review.

  72. Jennifer Madison-avatar

    Jennifer Madison


    seems like it could be good, but I can't get back to pictures I took with the app to edit them! hubby took a couple pictures, but we didn't edit them at the time. they're in my gallery, but the app doesn't recognize them to let me resume the process. 😔 I had been looking forward to trying this, but between my husband's patience with taking the picture and the apparent need to edit as you go, it looks like I'll have to resort to AAA or the post office. **UPDATE: Thanks for the helpful response. Modifying from 1 to 4 stars. Getting into editing the prior photo via the Gallery did the trick. (Disappointed the pictures weren't automatically in the list in the app, but this was a decent workaround!) Unfortunately, I can't use the pictures anyway. I appreciate that the app pointed out that taking a picture in front of large white paper wasn't sufficiently "white" for my passport. Guess I'll have to get an official picture after all! (Not sure I want to pay for the upgrade to modify the background... I'm concerned that it would get denied since I don't think you're supposed to modify the pictures at all!)

  73. Mosh Berman-avatar

    Perfect! The app works perfectly. It is very easy to use and makes perfect passport style photos! Very impressed and satisfied!

  74. pete lane-avatar

    Useful and easy to use but keeps pestering you for a 5-star review. Purchased the background remover only to find that you only have 15 free credits which wasn't clear so you will end up paying again. If it had been a straight forward pay for full functionality, I'd have given it 4-5 stars, but that has made it feel like a bit of a con.

  75. Rob Ford-avatar

    It beautifully guides me through what used to be the tricky business of taking and printing good passport photos. Well worth the money.

  76. steven bishop-avatar

    It's not free, if you want your photo to be accepted 1st time you need the premium version, which is still cheaper than a photo booth. This rating is only based on the free version

  77. Olaf Lukaszewski-avatar

    Olaf Lukaszewski


    I couldn't figure out how to save the pictures taken in the app. The help menu did not have any answer for this issue. I guess they want you to buy premium version. Definitely uninstall...

  78. otman bouchari-avatar

    The app literally lost my shot after upgrading to "premium" version. If you're asking people to upgrade and then loose their photo they have just taken at least save it before.

  79. All about cricket-avatar

    All about cricket


    Really great app have functionality to design passport size images with changing the background. I like it very much

  80. Charles Larue-avatar

    What a brilliant idea and useful app. I was skeptical, but spent the $3.99 for premium passport ID. At Walgreens or CVS passport photos are $16 each. We needed 2 photos, so I took a chance and spent money on this app instead. The background removal tool took a little bit of time to figure out (maybe 5 min per photo), but not difficult. Lots of good tips offered on how not to take photos. Very happy I found this app. Thank You.

  81. Roshana Sham-avatar

    It's really a bad experience, because just to change the backround you need to pay and they say will refund if gets rejected. If you launch an application, basic features should be possible.

  82. Jerry P-avatar

    The developer said they fixed the problem that I complained about. They flat out lied. No update and I'm still getting annoying notifications that can't be disabled. I hate that I paid for the premium app and the it keeps giving me notifications with only choices to rate the app with 5 stars or delay the notification to come back again. It doesn't matter that I reviewed the app, I still get the notification everyday. Works ok with some careful editing and time to remove background.

  83. Liliana Kabaldina-avatar

    Liliana Kabaldina


    Works amazing. Loved this app.

  84. Erika Feole-avatar

    great app. used to create 6 passport photos on 1 4x6 sheet. paid 33 cents at CVS but looked a little grey/green background on their print. ended up using a print off my epson printer at home for true color quality . so truly free . saved $12 minimum compared to having someone take them from post office etc. ******edit: now if you could open the government back up to speed up the passport process that would be great!

  85. V Green-avatar

    I could not get it to work. I downloaded & paid extra for the white background but it kept erasing part of my face. I think I would have been able to get it to work if I had more time. It is a good concept, but I would like a refund for the extra I paid. Even though things didn't work out for me, they stood behind their product and still offered to assist me. Great Customer Service.

  86. Maria Mc Coy-avatar

    Awkward to use to get the kind of photo required for passports eventually did it. Thankfully itll be another 10 years before I'll need one again - maybe by that time it may have improved. Would not recommend it at all. Just used a normal photo. If there was a string of zero 3 that's what this app would get totally useless.

  87. A Google user-avatar

    Rubbish - paid for the premium service for the background remover and it's not worth it - automatic option was (predictably) no good, and painstakingly doing it manually leaves a photo that is obviously edited and would be rejected. We're heading off to a photo booth tomorrow! DO NOT BUY PREMIUM One good thing - if you need a digital photo for the online UK application then it does convert the photo into a jpeg for you as that's what's required. I think that's part of the free version.

  88. tcanddb samsung-avatar

    tcanddb samsung


    Works perfect for what i wanted it for, which is small keyring photos. Couldnt find anything else that does this on my mobile and have it work in my printer app via the share button.. I used photos I already had from my gallery and so far no adds at all which is what I like the most! Easy as to use, first time I used it I printed exactly what i wanted that easy. Love it.

  89. Ash Bull-avatar

    I was at first very doubtful that the app was anything close to useful. but as it turns out, I actually loved it. I havent used my photos yet , but it shows you exactly what you need for different photo categories ie. passport, liscence ect.. all you need to do is print them. so instead of going to your local photo lab for pictures and printing. you do your own photos and printing of you dint have at home then isn't expansive at all.. So yeah, I'd give it 10 stars but only able to do 5 ..luv it!

  90. Eric Ritter-avatar

    The US passport rules don't allow digital manipulation of images. Background remover will result in photos being rejected. The makers of the app must know this and should tell users. Just take the photo in front of a uniform light colored background and use any of a number of free on-line programs to crop the image to 2 x 2 inches. No need for this app, and definitely don't pay for the background remover if you're applying for a US passport or visa.

  91. James Connor-avatar

    you pay for the app, then all it does is force you to write a 5 star review. you get notifications that you cant get rid of. and pop ups constantly with 5 stars pre filled in that you cant change. its a passport photo app, i needed to use it once. to make a passport photo. i wont need it again for 10 years. thank god.

  92. Charlene Tan-avatar

    Easy to use and overall a very good app. Why i rated u a 4 star is becos your app sends a daily request to rate it 5 stars in google play. Extremely irritating as the reminder does not allow u to swipe it away but will launch the app. A rating should be voluntary as it is either a compliment or feedback on what to improve on, it should not be forced upon or harassed about...

  93. Jessica Terry-avatar

    I paid for the background tool and was skeptical at first because it was difficult to crop around hair. However, I printed the photos, 6 of them for a total of 33cents at CVS, and submitted the best of them with mine and my husband's US passport application. Both were accepted! This app saved me close to $30. Recommend to anyone looking to save money!

  94. Justin w-avatar

    Good for photo positioning only. The extra payment for background removal is a waste of money and more likely to get the photos turned down at the passort office because its obvious they have been edited and look unnatural. Your better off using the free part of the app and using a white background with lights off in daytime to get rid of shadows. Most phone cameras will now lighten your pics for you anyway.

  95. Kameron Smith-avatar

    Paid for premium for the "automatic background filler". It does not work do not waste your money like I did.

  96. Asif Mansoori-avatar

    Very productive app ! I have already saved more than $50 by using this app. I have not used any other app so can't really compare other app but for my purpose more than sufficient. Free version works with no issues but if you want to clear background then you have to buy extra add-on. i am using pro version that includes everything. Highly recommend app.

  97. Sadaf Ahmed-avatar

    Very intuitive. Great apartment. Very flexible printing options. A great money saver

  98. Romit Mathur-avatar

    The 3 start will be upgraded to 4 star once the annoying notification goes off to rate this app. I've bought this app, but being constantly getting notifications to rate it. The app does the what is really says. But although I bought it, I can put a white background to a photo only 15 times. Please correct this for a paid app.

  99. Jason Firko-avatar

    Works great, easy to use. Free version works. Just stood in front of an off white background.

  100. A Google user-avatar

    Ultimately disappointed. The app completely failed to take advantage of the resolution and other properties of my phone's camera and produced a file of such low resolution that when printed would never have been accepted for a passport. Furthermore, it made the background artificially darker than when a duplicate photo was taken outside of the application.