FileMaster: File Manage, File Transfer Power Clean APK

Version 1.2.3 - com.root.clean.boost.explorer.filemanager
Last updated: Sat, 16 Jan 2021 19:18:42 UTC
root,clean,boost,explorer,filemanager,tools,files:, apk,

FileMaster: File Manage, File Transfer Power Clean apk

APP Information

Download Version 1.2.3 (123)
Apk Size25.36 MB
App DeveloperStarry Sky Mobi
Malware CheckTRUSTED
Install on Android5.0 and up
App Packagecom.root.clean.boost.explorer.filemanager.apk

Download FileMaster: File Manage, File Transfer Power Clean 1.2.3 APK

App Description

FileMaster: File Manage, File Transfer Power Clean is root,clean,boost,explorer,filemanager,tools,files, content rating is Everyone (PEGI-3). This app is rated 5 by 5 users who are using this app. To know more about the company/developer, visit Starry Sky Mobi website who developed it. com.root.clean.boost.explorer.filemanager.apk apps can be downloaded and installed on Android 5.0 and higher Android devices. The Latest Version of 1.2.3 Available for download. Download the app using your favorite browser and click Install to install the application. Please note that we provide both basic and pure APK files and faster download speeds than APK Mirror. This app APK has been downloaded 7258+ times on store. You can also download com.root.clean.boost.explorer.filemanager APK and run it with the popular Android Emulators.

Manage your files efficiently and easily with File Master! File Master helps you handle all your files whether they are stored in your device's memory, microSD card and local area network.
File Master allows you to copy, move, rename, delete or share files to and from any of your storages. It also lets you browse and access your files by category.

Key features:
★ Smart Library File Explorer Categorize all files into Downloads from internet, Bluetooth from nearby devices, Images, Pictures, Videos, Movies, Audio , Music, Documents (pdf, xls, ppt etc), Archives (zip, rar etc) and APK.
★ File Search The optimized search engine of file explorer will find file in internal storage and SD card in 1 second. And users can browse files by category, e.g. image, music, video, apps, etc.
★ Root Explorer For advanced users to explore, edit, copy, paste and delete files in the root partition of phone storage for development purposes. Explore root folders of the system like data, cache.
★ Chromecast File Manager You can use it to play local media on to your chromecast device like, Google Home, Android TV or other chromecast devices.
★ Junk Cleaner Helps you free up your storage space by removing junk, residual and cache files which slows down your phone.
★ App Manager and Process Manager Intelligently, this fully-featured file manager will analyze storage usage, detect large files, redundancy files, and newly-created files. Therefore users can make sense of storage usage, clean junk file and other files & folders that are no longer needed effortlessly.
★ Document Editor You can easily edit files on the go. Support for every type of text files such as HTML, XHTML, TXT etc.
★ WhatsApp / Telegram File Manager Helps you organize your WhatsApp Media for storage space in your phone like Photos, Gifs, Videos, Audio, Stickers, Documents and everything easily.
★ WiFi Share With build-in wifi file transfer, this free file manager and explorer exploits wifi & hotspot to transfer files to another phone and PC even without internet connection. Without limitation for file size and type, users can transfer any file including apps, video, music, picture, etc. extremely fast.
★ Private & Safe This free file manager and explorer provides 100% local file management. Therefore there is no risk of any file leak. Your files and information are completely safe.
★ App Lock Keep your privacy by locking FileMaster with built-in app lock. You can enter FileMaster by fingerprint, password or pattern, which depends on your device.

For specific usage of data and permissions, you can access our privacy policy:

App ChangeLog

App Screens

FileMaster: File Manage, File Transfer Power Clean App Screen 1FileMaster: File Manage, File Transfer Power Clean App Screen 2FileMaster: File Manage, File Transfer Power Clean App Screen 3FileMaster: File Manage, File Transfer Power Clean App Screen 4FileMaster: File Manage, File Transfer Power Clean App Screen 5FileMaster: File Manage, File Transfer Power Clean App Screen 6FileMaster: File Manage, File Transfer Power Clean App Screen 7FileMaster: File Manage, File Transfer Power Clean App Screen 8


requires following permissions on your android device.

view network connections
Allows the app to view information about network connections such as which networks exist and are connected.

view Wi-Fi connections
Allows the app to view information about Wi-Fi networking, such as whether Wi-Fi is enabled and name of connected Wi-Fi devices.

take pictures and videos
Allows the app to take pictures and videos with the camera. This permission allows the app to use the camera at any time without your confirmation.

Allows access to the list of accounts in the Accounts Service.

full network access
Allows the app to create network sockets and use custom network protocols. The browser and other applications provide means to send data to the internet, so this permission is not required to send data to the internet.

close other apps
Allows the app to end background processes of other apps. This may cause other apps to stop running.

read the contents of your SD card
Allows the app to read the contents of your SD card.

read phone state
Allows read only access to phone state, including the phone number of the device, current cellular network information, the status of any ongoing calls, and a list of any PhoneAccounts registered on the device.

run at startup
Allows the app to have itself started as soon as the system has finished booting. This can make it take longer to start the phone and allow the app to slow down the overall phone by always running.

draw over other apps
Allows the app to draw on top of other applications or parts of the user interface. They may interfere with your use of the interface in any application, or change what you think you are seeing in other applications.

control vibration
Allows the app to control the vibrator.

prevent phone from sleeping
Allows the app to prevent the phone from going to sleep.

modify or delete the contents of your SD card
Allows the app to write to the SD card.

install shortcuts
Allows an application to add Homescreen shortcuts without user intervention.

uninstall shortcuts
Allows the application to remove Homescreen shortcuts without user intervention.

receive data from Internet
Allows apps to accept cloud to device messages sent by the app's service. Using this service will incur data usage. Malicious apps could cause excess data usage.

Older Versions

More Android Apps to Consider

Google Play Reviews

  1. Favorite 1-avatar

    Favorite 1


    Gave this app all permissions and it can't access my files. And with the constant FULL screen ad invasions along with the constant rate pop ups I have no idea how this p.o.s. ended up with such a high rating. And the 2gigs of junk it "cleans" is probably put in by all the ads, my guess it's just a scam.

  2. Zulkefli Mansor-avatar

    Zulkefli Mansor


    apk The most disgusting file manager I've ever used, the app keep crashing and it doesn't allow me to change file from internal to external, to much ads and crash all the time

  3. Grid View-avatar

    Grid View


    I wanted a file explorer, not a cleaner or booster. This app can't even find the files I'm looking for and the features and UI are so disorganized that I barely understand it.

  4. Arian Debnath-avatar

    Arian Debnath


    This is a very useful application and I give it 5 star so the creator can make it more better .It has easily cleared the unwanted files from my device .Thank you.

  5. Gaang Shalikh-avatar

    Gaang Shalikh


    I liked this app soo much!!!!! It has a grea8 feature and that is hte ram cooling. The ram cooling feature is soo cool!!!!! I liked this app. Best app ever!!!!!!!

  6. Minara Begum-avatar

    Minara Begum


    Sometime the app not clean all junk files , temporary cache e.t.c . When I reset this app it clean 2.1 GB junk.this is fake app . It don't clean junk truly .!!!!!!!

  7. X veyron-avatar

    X veyron


    Its majority which this kind app like this is rubbish... When use it such as cleaned,boost or etc it will become the same when i check on system. Better i use the manual method than this it useless at all nothing change

  8. Sandra-avatar



    Great multi- functional app for file veiwing, transfers and cleaning junk. Simple to use but it does contain quite a few ads.

  9. Ďàn!mə-avatar



    Guess too early to say much.But constant ads appeared on it every tasks are very annoying.It did not hibernate the apps as it should be.

  10. Arif Hashmi-avatar

    Arif Hashmi


    This is not a app, it's a advertisement center, were anyone can find lots of ads in every step while using this app. Worst app, too much ads.

  11. Siegfried Kukah-avatar

    Siegfried Kukah


    Great app. Had storage problems with my A16 but that's no more since I started using File master.

  12. Gabriel Chabba-avatar

    Gabriel Chabba


    Awesome app, efficient and detailed. Cleans deeper than just the installed cleaner.

  13. Thomas Yeboah-avatar

    Thomas Yeboah


    Good and fast but I need to take more time to observe its features

  14. Samrachana Timsina-avatar

    Samrachana Timsina


    Gr8 app. Loved it. Very useful for samsung mobile which usually gets hang

  15. ogie umali-avatar

    ogie umali


    This is a fake app it wont clean any it has a default 2.1gb to be clean. After you scan clear the data of the app and use again it will still be there. This be should be removed in the playstore

  16. Denzil Marrow-avatar

    Denzil Marrow


    Thanks, I've just installed the app now, l'm sure it's gonna help and make the phone function better though.... will see later and update you again on the performance

  17. Saad Ejaz-avatar

    Saad Ejaz


    Easy to use interface and very interactive. Quicker than most apps ive tried.

  18. Aung Khaing Min-avatar

    Aung Khaing Min


    Really good to clean my device.. Sometimes my device is very slow. This application make my device better.

  19. htun kyaw-avatar

    htun kyaw


    Please,make this apk sure for external USB being stay and still when it is connected with phone. Most often,the icon USB disappear and not function well when phone is connected with USB.

  20. myo min htay-avatar

    myo min htay


    It's not only easily to use and but also helpful to me. It's a great thing.

  21. faisal arifin raj-avatar

    faisal arifin raj


    Really it's an amazing apps,,, it's so easy to use,,,,& it's so helpful for my mobile

  22. Chad Johnson-avatar

    Chad Johnson


    Wasn't too sure about this app at first, but the longer I seem to have it the more I'm discovering and helpful it becomes.

  23. Adam Ismail-avatar

    Adam Ismail


    Wth with this app ??? Too many ads, many times i open this app, this ads just never gone

  24. Alex Bhatti-avatar

    Alex Bhatti


    It was a headache about memory problems Hope it works.

  25. Dorcas Anthony-avatar

    Dorcas Anthony


    Fast in cleaning and easy to use .

  26. IRFAN MIRZA-avatar



    Really fantastic App should use every one because of so easy and useful. Appreciated

  27. Joyce Brown-avatar

    Joyce Brown


    Too many pop ops, didn't solve my problem. Kept wanting to scan my phone every couple of hours when the dialog boxthey show said it had been two days! No thank you!

  28. Benny Pye-avatar

    Benny Pye


    Cleaned of data first hopp Not bad looking too remove ads soon team can you help me out with this issue

  29. Robert Souder-avatar

    Robert Souder


    Just be careful not to inadvertently hit any of install buttons on the adds. They look just like the tool buttons that you do want to hit.

  30. Doctor Soup-avatar

    Doctor Soup


    It actually lies and says it can free up a set amount, usually around 2 gb but it doesn't actually do it. It accesses all your files but doesn't really assist - kinda sketch

  31. Asanda Mtambo-avatar

    Asanda Mtambo


    This app has helped me to much on cleaning virus of my phone. my memory card had a problem of that if you move something to it like songs or video's it doesn't vela on music but now iyavela thank you very much for fixing my problem

  32. Cl Palmer-avatar

    Cl Palmer


    Thank you for sharing your app with us. You've given us a tool we can use anywhere &it's free! Tk u also for not putting on a lot of ads! I give you 10 STARS!!!!

  33. 1Serval-avatar



    Zillions of ads. Doesn't really manage files.

  34. Brian Wilson-avatar

    Brian Wilson


    Does not work. Continually reports the same problems every time and fixes nothing. Heavily loaded with ads.

  35. Sam Beckwith Jr-avatar

    Sam Beckwith Jr


    Extreme amount of full page ads! Unusable!

  36. Ago Stino-avatar

    Ago Stino


    Ads are much too intrusive. App does not really do anything other ad-free apps can do.

  37. Tanjim Rafid-avatar

    Tanjim Rafid


    Its totally rubbish & useless apps. Repeatedly show the same problems which for already scanned & action taken. And also full of irrating ads.

  38. Theo Carurucan-avatar

    Theo Carurucan


    It really clean and clear the unwanted files i will recommend this to my friends

  39. Umair Q-avatar

    Umair Q


    Its good for hwawie beautifull aplication I love this but one thing is very bad in this app is nothing

  40. Syed Kashif Hussain-avatar

    Syed Kashif Hussain


    Useless... It seema as the phone has been cleaned and super fast but when you check the actual storage, it remains the same as before.

  41. Mike Mike-avatar

    Mike Mike


    Awful. Every action is followed by a full screen ad for Mozilla VPN. third time it blasted audio ad also. Uninstalled.

  42. Salvador Alcantara-avatar

    Salvador Alcantara


    So nice! Unexpectedly it cleans my Asus android . It's really amazing. Thank you!

  43. Paul DCosta-avatar

    Paul DCosta


    The advertising aspect of this app has superceded the main content of the app

  44. Adrian Travertz-avatar

    Adrian Travertz


    Much better,the first App I had was ok but,My phone needed the right app.I'll live 1 star out just in case of suit- case.

  45. Julianne Hape-avatar

    Julianne Hape


    Best app. It detected 2.1 GB junk files in my phone and cleared it.

  46. Martin Muchinga-avatar

    Martin Muchinga


    Indescribably excellent app. Does the work of three or four apps faster and saves space and time.

  47. Robert Maina-avatar

    Robert Maina


    It's great. I just recovered 2 GB from ad junk

  48. Sir Willard-avatar

    Sir Willard


    Repeatedly asks to stop running apps even after doing so. Thus, it's ineffective. Don't download!

  49. Johann Grobler-avatar

    Johann Grobler


    Worked easy enough, will see whatbthe results are as time passes.

  50. Usman LAWAL-avatar

    Usman LAWAL


    Well and fine application it make phone work well and very fast

  51. grace Dayhope-avatar

    grace Dayhope


    Sooo good for me cause my phone get lowbatt faster ,but when I use this app it's help to slowww down my battery.

  52. Hatsunaz Rin-avatar

    Hatsunaz Rin


    Wow first thing i saw when opening the app is 5 sec ad.. Then the app itself is so basic and not worth watching the ad

  53. Charlie Brown-avatar

    Charlie Brown


    Doesn't deserve 1 star. The good reviews must be fake. Ungodly number of full page animated ads for junque applications for a file manager? That's just greedy. An ad pops up at every touch of the screen. You were warned.

  54. Catherine Petrus-avatar

    Catherine Petrus


    Efficient and Effective, and also timely.

  55. Samuel nnnbbjio-avatar

    Samuel nnnbbjio


    Excellent apps giving you 5 stars try it and you will have it.

  56. 1 Bad Jesus-avatar

    1 Bad Jesus


    cast doesn't work and startup requires minute just to open. uninstalled.

  57. Emile Rensburg-avatar

    Emile Rensburg


    doesnt work. pretends to find JUNK over and over and over again.

  58. Debbie W.-avatar

    Debbie W.


    Easy to use. Works as described.

  59. tusher imran-avatar

    tusher imran


    This is a very good works fast.

  60. Kevin Snow-avatar

    Kevin Snow


    Too many ads. Otherwise good

  61. Abdullah Aslam-avatar

    Abdullah Aslam


    This app is very helpful for cleaning your phone & easy to use

  62. Mohammad Forhad Uddin Jacky-avatar

    Mohammad Forhad Uddin Jacky


    No action against junk, boost, scan etc. But showing it’s take action. 🖕 Master. 😡

  63. john MG-avatar

    john MG


    It's not true.It only shows you that it's removing almost 2 GB junk but it doesn't.

  64. blacksheep-avatar



    Start immediately with an ad and isn't really a good file manager

  65. NELLY_ FLY-avatar



    I Love This Apps. Bicose They Cleanit Everything.Thanks Much

  66. Kervin Moloto-avatar

    Kervin Moloto


    It was easy to use was quite specific

  67. Mohammad Waseem-avatar

    Mohammad Waseem


    Good app but with lot of ads

  68. Biru Jima-avatar

    Biru Jima


    This application is simple and very fast. I like it.

  69. Jared donnelly sr-avatar

    Jared donnelly sr


    Awesome no root file explorer, easy user friendly convenient.

  70. Sting Fun-avatar

    Sting Fun


    Good but ads always like nightmare

  71. Bernadette Ferreira-avatar

    Bernadette Ferreira


    Easy to use. Looks good visually. Does what it says. Manage files.

  72. mirah arisandi-avatar

    mirah arisandi


    good aplication and very fast to action

  73. Iza-avatar



    it Keeps Generating Pop ups like crazy, lots of adds too.

  74. Luke Atkinson-avatar

    Luke Atkinson


    Doesn't work got 2 ads before even using

  75. Majid Hussain-avatar

    Majid Hussain


    Everything was smooth after using this app.

  76. Nellyjaryd Aibeb-avatar

    Nellyjaryd Aibeb


    I am glad i got this i love the app clearner it really helps storage thank u producers

  77. Jerry Bridgers-avatar

    Jerry Bridgers


    More fluff and foolishness than file handling

  78. yg. roxy-avatar

    yg. roxy


    This app really helped me alot by cleaning my storage

  79. Billy Hardy-avatar

    Billy Hardy


    Works well, however a little intrusive

  80. orlando Ancheta-avatar

    orlando Ancheta


    Under brief observation yet , hoping it will satisfy users of this application,

  81. Yirgalem Tamirat-avatar

    Yirgalem Tamirat


    Wonderful App and nice looking! Thank you developer!

  82. F CB-avatar

    F CB


    Dead easy to use-freed up 2.11 Gb From my full phone.

  83. Nasser Al hadi-avatar

    Nasser Al hadi


    I found Over 2.GB Ad Junk, was really Making my phone (Redmi 7) slower.

  84. Foque Ali-avatar

    Foque Ali


    Usless, after every task there is ad in it, Its not file master its ad master app.

  85. zinhle dlamini-avatar

    zinhle dlamini


    I love this app it so phone is now working super good after i used this app.

  86. Ugonna Miracle-avatar

    Ugonna Miracle


    I love this application so much because it's easy to use

  87. irshad khan-avatar

    irshad khan


    Excellent working app to remove malware bytes

  88. Khanyisa Hintsho-avatar

    Khanyisa Hintsho


    Tooooo much ads i just get lost,can't even remember what i was doing

  89. Britton Redline-avatar

    Britton Redline


    Fast, Easy, User-Friendly... This app cleaned THREE GiGABYTES of junk files off of my phone in 45 SECONDS!!!

  90. Aurnab jaodad-avatar

    Aurnab jaodad


    This us really nice app and cleans junks really fast

  91. Eric Gagnon-avatar

    Eric Gagnon


    Pretty cool. Easy fast,love it I recommend 2 every one!!

  92. MaryLyn Williams-avatar

    MaryLyn Williams


    It lies 🤣 it just told me I haven't scanned in 1 day now how is that possible I just downloaded it today 🙄🤬🤭 don't think I'll keep this one.

  93. Magsayo Motin-avatar

    Magsayo Motin


    The apps is awesome Idont need to find the apps that i've never use it..and find it one by one..all i have to do is to is use this apps and its done..

  94. Norboyev Nodirali-avatar

    Norboyev Nodirali


    I just used from this app. It is working well. I liked its features.

  95. J.W. Bullseye-avatar

    J.W. Bullseye


    IT did exactly what I needed... And within a minute of downloading. Id say it was the most useful app that I have downloaded in at least 6 months!!! PLEASE HELP SPREAD MESSAGE TO U.S. ARMED FORCES "STOP TARGETING CIVILIANS AND LABELING THEM TERRORISTS"

  96. Rakib Shak-avatar

    Rakib Shak


    Thise is nice app. Its really work two samsung phone

  97. Jacob Coates-avatar

    Jacob Coates


    Mega Ads!!! Ads after everything.

  98. Robin Flem-avatar

    Robin Flem


    Excellent appt highly recommend to others

  99. Evan Thomas-avatar

    Evan Thomas


    Way too many ads

  100. JOERIC CESAR-avatar



    It's a good app because, it help your phone in cleaning it

  101. Undeadpool-avatar



    Fail to query positive response

  102. Sami Khan Niazi-avatar

    Sami Khan Niazi


    Nice app to keep phone clean from all odd junks files.

  103. ivan sew mannilall-avatar

    ivan sew mannilall


    Awesome well.just too much ads.

  104. Rokeya Begum-avatar

    Rokeya Begum


    I would give it five star but there is too much adds.We can't except such quality from security apps

  105. dale noray-avatar

    dale noray


    Seems to be working fine cleaning unwanted stuff

  106. Oprah Sharon-avatar

    Oprah Sharon


    Very good app, easy to use

  107. Mariam Kamel-avatar

    Mariam Kamel


    Advertiser only !!! No app !!!

  108. Nadia Khanum-avatar

    Nadia Khanum


    This app is good for keeping your mobile perfect

  109. Jacob Asaadiok-avatar

    Jacob Asaadiok


    Great app and easy to use

  110. Kimberly Davis-avatar

    Kimberly Davis


    Awesome app got my space back in less than 2 minutes.

  111. Compliant 2020-avatar

    Compliant 2020


    Just annoying ads. Removed!

  112. mashudu phalanndwa-avatar

    mashudu phalanndwa


    Very fast and reliable,i recommend this app

  113. Rohan Hossain-avatar

    Rohan Hossain


    I have LGv30U+ And this app is amazing for All LG Devices💖

  114. Philomena Freeman-avatar

    Philomena Freeman


    It's easy and fast to use I love it

  115. Onesmo Mwoleolo-avatar

    Onesmo Mwoleolo


    Faster and more efficient to clean its fantastic

  116. BISONG LEVITE-avatar



    Great app. It works like magic.

  117. Terence Harris-avatar

    Terence Harris


    Easy to use only time will tell

  118. khosi tshabalala-avatar

    khosi tshabalala


    Its good and fast.never thought it would be so easy

  119. David Eze-avatar

    David Eze


    It's good cleans it has battery saver and it cleans viruses

  120. Akoto Osei Kuffuor-avatar

    Akoto Osei Kuffuor


    Fast and easy to use

  121. Angel Lovely Padua /V-TOPAZ-avatar

    Angel Lovely Padua /V-TOPAZ


    It really helps me and my phone is not lagging and safe anymore!thanks File Master for making this app!!

  122. A Google user-avatar

    A Google user


    Keeps phone up to date and works perfectly

  123. Leader YT-avatar

    Leader YT


    I like this app .. Cause this makes my phone empty from The ad. And chache

  124. Kevin Menas-avatar

    Kevin Menas


    The best and fast cleaning app.

  125. Ette UJU-avatar

    Ette UJU


    Good app, relatively better than most.

  126. KENTH_ TV-avatar



    Its very very fun and easy to use.

  127. i fanny-avatar

    i fanny


    Too many ads

  128. Ishmael Chauke-avatar

    Ishmael Chauke


    Adds is a problem but the app is fantastic

  129. Naim Sleiman-avatar

    Naim Sleiman


    Fast and easy its awesome

  130. M. Myint Sann-avatar

    M. Myint Sann


    Cannot Open the File management on Mi7 device except clean.

  131. Aqsa Khan-avatar

    Aqsa Khan


    I like it its an amazing exp. I hope it will boost my mobile.

  132. upagz paguio-avatar

    upagz paguio


    easy to use and nice

  133. Joseph Moses-avatar

    Joseph Moses


    Nice but doesn't prevent draining of power

  134. DAN MATENGO-avatar



    Very helpful to smart phones that everybody shold have

  135. Mang MAHA-avatar

    Mang MAHA


    Very good app. Thank so much.

  136. Anita Noynay-avatar

    Anita Noynay


    Worst file manager ever. So much ads!

  137. muhammad shahid zia-avatar

    muhammad shahid zia


    This app is very useful for honor 5 X. I like it.

  138. My Talking Tom Pakistan-avatar

    My Talking Tom Pakistan


    Too much ads but good app

  139. Eddy Subakir-avatar

    Eddy Subakir


    Good and Easy to use

  140. Naveed Khan-avatar

    Naveed Khan


    A good application for mobile devices

  141. dharani ranaweera-avatar

    dharani ranaweera


    Good one ..but hell of advertising

  142. Ashim Thapa-avatar

    Ashim Thapa


    I think this app is good because it clean all the junk and make my phone more space

  143. Ahmed Mezo-avatar

    Ahmed Mezo


    It is a useful app , it scan , clean and other to your phone . I'm from egypt.....

  144. Jtaucho Timulch-avatar

    Jtaucho Timulch


    Wow!! This apps is really amazing my phone is finally back to normal.

  145. Acheampong Eric-avatar

    Acheampong Eric


    Woaww so amazing and very easy to access

  146. frank marmo-avatar

    frank marmo


    It good and easy to use

  147. Siryet Oloba-avatar

    Siryet Oloba


    This app so good and satisfying, i really like it.

  148. German Polosin-avatar

    German Polosin


    Junk app, too much ads

  149. Hkawn Hkawn-avatar

    Hkawn Hkawn


    I like this app more than other file manager.

  150. Aftab Hussain-avatar

    Aftab Hussain


    Nice but ads are annoying.